How to Write Dialogue
(With Formatting and Examples)

Read more Screenwriting

How to Write Dialogue (With Formatting and Examples)


Dialogue is the lifeblood of screenwriting. It drives the story, reveals character, and engages the audience. Well-crafted dialogue can make a screenplay stand out, while poor dialogue can make it fall flat. In this blog post, we will explore how to write effective dialogue for screenplays, including formatting tips and practical examples. Whether you're a novice writer or a seasoned screenwriter looking to polish your skills, this guide will provide you with the tools you need to create compelling dialogue that enhances your narrative.

The Importance of Dialogue in Screenwriting

Dialogue serves multiple purposes in a screenplay:

  • Character Development: Dialogue reveals a character's personality, background, and motivations. It gives the audience insight into who they are and what they want.
  • Plot Advancement: Dialogue moves the story forward, providing essential information and creating tension and conflict.
  • Tone and Mood: The way characters speak can set the tone and mood of a scene, contributing to the overall atmosphere of the film.
  • Audience Engagement: Snappy, clever, or poignant dialogue can captivate the audience, making them invested in the characters and the story.

Crafting Effective Dialogue

1. Know Your Characters

To write authentic dialogue, you need to understand your characters deeply. Each character should have a distinct voice that reflects their background, personality, and circumstances. Consider their:

  • Background: Where are they from? What is their socioeconomic status?
  • Personality: Are they introverted or extroverted? Optimistic or pessimistic?
  • Motivations: What do they want? What are their fears and desires?

2. Keep It Natural

Natural dialogue mimics real-life conversations but is more focused and purposeful. To achieve this:

  • Listen to Real Conversations: Observe how people speak in different contexts. Note the rhythm, pacing, and word choice.
  • Read Aloud: Hearing your dialogue spoken can help you identify awkward phrasing or unnatural lines.
  • Use Contractions and Colloquialisms: People often speak in contractions and use informal language.

3. Avoid Exposition Dumps

Exposition is necessary to provide context, but it should be woven naturally into the dialogue. Avoid large chunks of information delivered in a single speech. Instead:

  • Show, Don’t Tell: Use actions and visual elements to convey information.
  • Spread Information: Distribute essential details across multiple scenes and conversations.

Formatting Dialogue in Screenplays

Proper formatting is crucial in screenwriting. It ensures your script is professional and easy to read. Here's a step-by-step guide to formatting dialogue in a screenplay:

Character Name and Dialogue

When a character speaks, their name appears in uppercase, centered above the dialogue. Dialogue is written below the character's name, indented and formatted consistently.

I can't believe we're doing this.


Parentheticals are brief instructions on how a line should be delivered. They are used sparingly:

Oh, great. Another surprise.

Examples of Well-Written Dialogue

1. Revealing Character


Maggie, a sharp and ambitious lawyer, types furiously at her desk. Her colleague, Tom, enters the room.

Burning the midnight oil again, Maggie?

(keeps typing)
Some of us have to work for a living, Tom.

In this example, Maggie’s dedication and Tom’s laid-back attitude are revealed through their interaction.

2. Advancing Plot


Detective Harper corners a suspect, gun drawn.

You have nowhere to run. Tell me where the money is, and maybe I'll cut you a deal.

Alright, alright! It's in the old warehouse on 5th Street.

This dialogue moves the plot forward by revealing crucial information about the money’s location.

3. Setting Tone and Mood


Emily, trembling, holds a flashlight as she steps into the dark hallway.

Is anyone there?

(a distant creak is heard)

Who's there? Show yourself!

The dialogue, combined with the setting and action, creates a tense and eerie mood.

Tips for Writing Engaging Dialogue

1. Subtext

Subtext is the underlying meaning behind the words. It adds depth to the dialogue, allowing characters to say one thing but mean another. For example:

(looking at her watch)
You're late again.

(avoiding eye contact)
I got held up at work.

Susan’s comment about being late may imply deeper issues in their relationship, and Mark’s avoidance indicates guilt or discomfort.

2. Conflict

Conflict in dialogue keeps the audience engaged. It can be overt or subtle, but it should drive the story forward. For example:

I think we should break up.

What? Why?

Because you're never here, Mike. I need more than this.

This exchange reveals a conflict that propels the narrative.

3. Voice and Style

Each character should have a unique voice. Consider their background, personality, and experiences. For instance, a teenage character might use slang, while an older character might speak more formally.

Common Mistakes to Avoid

1. Overusing Dialogue

Not every scene needs extensive dialogue. Use it judiciously and let actions and visuals tell the story when possible.

2. Unrealistic Speech

Avoid making dialogue too perfect or stylized. People often speak in fragments, interrupt each other, and use filler words.

3. On-the-Nose Dialogue

On-the-nose dialogue states exactly what the character is thinking or feeling. Instead, strive for subtlety and subtext.

In Conclusion

Writing effective dialogue is both an art and a skill that can be developed with practice and attention to detail. By understanding your characters, keeping dialogue natural, and adhering to proper formatting, you can create compelling conversations that enhance your screenplay. Remember to infuse your dialogue with subtext, conflict, and unique character voices to keep your audience engaged. With these tips and examples, you're well on your way to mastering the craft of screenwriting dialogue.

Whether you're just starting out or looking to refine your skills, these guidelines will help you write dialogue that resonates with readers and viewers alike.

Happy writing!

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